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Glossary of Jungian Terms

Some of the Jungian terms and concepts are explained below.

Active imagination. Method of assimilation of unconscious contents through their experimentation as fantasies in the wakeful state. 

Amplification. Method of association in the interpretation of dreams based on comparative studies of mythology, religion, fairy tales, alchemy, astrology etc.

Anima. The archetype of female in man.

Animus. The archetype of male in woman. 

Anthropos. Primordial man, archetypal image of wholeness in alchemy, religion, and Gnostic philosophy. See also wholeness.

Archetype. Primary structural element of human psyche. The archetype is a predisposition for specific human experiences such as birth, motherhood, death, love etc. It is on the psychic level the correspondence of the pattern of behavour of biologists.

Archetypal image. The form or representation taken by the archetype in dreams, fantasies, cultural and religious (mythical) products.

Assimilation. The process of conscious integration of the contents of the personal and collective unconscious. The assimilation is the result of conscious elaboration (insight) in the psychotherapeutic process.

Collective unconscious. Distinctive from the personal unconscious, consists in archetypes or primordial images. See also personal unconscious. 

Compensation. A natural process of reestablishing a certain balance in the psyche.

Complex. An emotionally charged group of ideas or images.

Coniunctio. Or "conjunction", term used in alchemy to define the union of opposites. From the Jungian's psychological point of view, it means the union of the conscious and unconscious, process that is also called individuation. See also individuation.

Constellation. Activation of a psychic personal complex or an archetypal content. 

Dream. Spontaneous and natural manifestation of the psyche.

Enantiodromia. According to Jung, the path to individuation leads one through  opposing attitudes. See also Compensation.

Free associations - Freudian method in dream interpretation consisting in asking the dreamer to provide his own ideas and memories related to the fragments of the dream. The method has been used by Jung himself and later on completed with his own amplification approach. See also amplification.

Individuation. Described by Jung as the process of synthesis of the Self which consists mainly of the union of the unconscious and the consciousness. See also collective unconscious.

Inflation. Following the identification with an archetypal image, the effect of this identification is to exaggerate the proportions of the Ego.

Libido. Tendency towards, lust, psychic energy. For Jung the libido is not only sexual, while Freud considers it is only sexual.

Numinous. Defines the quality of archetypal images to inspire powerful feelings of panic, devotion etc.

Mandala. Graphical representation of the center or the Self. See also center and self.

Mystical participation. Term taken from anthropology, it defines the process of identification of the human subject with external phenomena, objects or beings with the aim of taking over or determining specific effects. 

Persona. Mask of the Ego, its social expression, the way the others see us.

Personal unconscious. The Freudian unconscious, made of repressed wishes, distinctive from the collective (archetypal) unconscious. See also collective unconscious.

Philosophical stone. Alchemist term identified by Jung with the process of individuation and accomplishment of the Self. See also self.

Projection. Autonomous process by which features (usually repressed) of the Ego are assigned to other people (external objects).

Prospective aspect - In the dream interpretation method, refers to the idea of dreams pointing to the future rather than to the past events (as with Sigmund Freud).

Quaternity. A visual representation of the psychic totality through square images.

Self. The archetype of psychic Totality, according to Jung.

Shadow. Containing the repressed, "bad" parts of the individual personality, the shadow is the counterpart of the Freudian unconscious. There is also an archetypal shadow (personified by demons and Satan-like figures in mythology and religion). 

Symbol. Unlike the Freudian definition, the symbol for Jung is the representation of some psychical representative unknown by the conscious mind, usually an instance of the Self (or the archetype of the center). 

Synchronicity. A meaningful, acausal, connection between two or more psychic and physical events..

Teleology. Jung's approach of teleology is based on his immense experience with his patients and dream analysis. He said he found psychic processes leading to a goal which is not influenced by outer causes. This goal is related to the archetypes and more especially to the realization of the Self or the psychic wholeness. See also self and wholeness.

Totality. See Wholeness.

Transcendent function. Arises from the meeting of the consciousness and the unconscious. It is a psychic process of transition from the stagnant attitude of the patient to a new and better one inspired by the constructive (symbolic) analysis of the unconscious contents that manifest in dreams. The psychotherapist mediates this process.

Trickster. Archetypal figure embodiment of the undiferentiated consciousness of the primitive man from the identification with animals. It can be equated with the shadow. See shadow.

Unconscious. Basic concept in the Jungian psychology, including both the personal and the collective unconscious, denotes a psychic strata that is not immediately accessible to the conscious mind. See also personal and collective unconscious.

Wholeness. Psychic stage in which the union of the unconscious with the consciousness has been achieved. It is the final aim of Jung's psychotherapy. See also unconscious.

Wise Old Man. Archetypal image that embodies the meaning. In the individuation process, the Wise Old Man embodies the collective unconscious or the Self. See also individuation process.

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